Quaker Network for the Prevention of Violent Conflict
Le Réseau de quaker pour l'Empêchment de Conflit Violent

Global Partnership for the Prevention of Armed Conflict (GPPAC)



This document presents the action recommendations made by seventy-eight civil society actors, academics, representatives of regional  organizations and the UN, who gathered in Nairobi, Kenya, from 26-29 October 2004, for the Eastern and Central African Regional Conference on conflict prevention and peacebuilding. Convened under the banner of the world-wide Global Partnership for the Prevention of Armed Conflict (GPPAC), the conference was organized by NPI-Africa, the process's Regional Initiator for Eastern and Central Africa. The participants were drawn from Burundi, the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), Ethiopia, Eritrea, Kenya, Rwanda Somalia, Sudan, Uganda and Tanzania.

The document begins by providing background information on the GPPAC process. It then offers the challenges and key issues identified by the participants, their definitions of conflict prevention, and then proceeds to make some recommendations and action suggestions.


Violent conflicts present one of the most urgent challenges to the Eastern and Central African sub-regions. The region has witnessed one of the longest armed conflicts in Africa in the Sudan. It has, in recent history, experienced one of the world's genocides, in Rwanda, closely followed by an even larger mass killings in the DRC. The situation in the DRC has been labeled " Africa's World War" because of the involvement of a host of other countries in the conflict. Burundi has experienced a civil war for most of the period since 1993, while ethnic and resource related tensions in Kenya have erupted into violence for most of the 1990s. In the same region, Somalia has experienced a civil war for the last 14 years following the collapse of the state, while a full-blown border war was fought between Ethiopia and Eritrea. In Northern Uganda, and atrocious war has been perpetrated for the last nearly 20 years, leading to massive displacements and suffering. In addition, and partly as a result of this state of affairs, illicit weapons have proliferated in the region, aiding the escalation of conflict have left their marks.

The cost of these conflicts has been tremendous and has contributed to the high levels of poverty and retardation of development in the region. Throughout the region, there is a major concern for the welfare of displaced people and refugees, the reconstruction and rehabilitation of infrastructure and the people, care of victims of war, and a need for reconciliation and healing. The high cost of military interventions and their ultimate failure, the lasting negative impact on communities and the high cost of peacekeeping operations and reconstruction suggest that the promotion of peace and human
Development in the region requires a fundamental shift from only reactive approaches to conflict, to more proactive, preventive approaches.


As part of the worldwide GPPAC process, we are motivated by and subscribe to the following guiding values and communities:

· Prevention of violent conflict is possible and should be pursued to the fullest extent by all peaceful means.

· Commitment to the transformation of the conditions that give rise to violent conflict.

· Creation of multi-level partnerships and networking among CSO's governments and multilateral organizations, among others for effective and broader prevention of violent conflicts.


· A culture, processes and attitudes that promote peaceful responses and transformation  of conflict at community, national and regional levels

· Governmental and CSO institutions committed to advance  warning  and response (AWARE) to threats to peace

· Legitimate democratic institutions, the rule of law and good governance

· Respect for human rights and fundamental freedoms

· Development of full citizenship and participation, combating all forms of discrimination and exclusion

· Distributive justice and fair management of natural resources,  including land and water

· Peaceful co-existence

· The respect for territorial integrity

· Civic education

· Poverty reduction strategies


There is no doubt that governments all over the world have a primary responsibility to protect citizens and prevent violence. Nevertheless, the complexity, scale and diversity of violent conflict, its causes and consequences, suggest that not single entity, on its own, can hope to adequately respond to ensure peace. Rather, a complex network of relationships and actions is needed. We are motivated by the genuine belief that effective partnerships between CSOs and other actors can contribute to the goals of conflict prevention and peacebuilding. CSOs all over the world have worked in specific conflict settings, conducting research and analysis, undertaking processes of peacemaking, promoting dialogue and peaceful resolution of conflict, and taking care of the rehabilitation, healing and reconciliation needs of survivors of conflict. Many CSO actors are close to the conflicts that they seek to address. This proximity affords them access to information and insights that state actors may not have. In many instances, CSOs are more acceptable to armed and opposition groups than representatives of governments, allowing more to play a positive role. As opposing sides in violent conflicts often directly target civilian population and the structures of civil society, the active involvement of civil society in peace processes (whether conflict prevention, negotiating peace accords or post-conflict peacebuilding) is becoming imperative for reaching durable solutions.

We seek the recognition of the important contribution CSOs are making, and can make in peacemaking, designing and implementing conflict early warning systems, promoting reconciliation, supporting implementation of peace agreements, and generally working to promote justice in ways that aid the prevention of violent conflict.


The following are the key issues and challenges pertinent to peacebuilding and the prevention of violent conflict in our region. These concerns serve as a guide for the actions we seek to promote in the region.

Low Capacity for Prevention

There lacks in the region the capacity to deal with conflicts. In spite of conflict management and peace and security programmes within regional bodies such as the AU, IGAD and COMESA, there lacks specialized agencies, at both governmental and intergovernmental level, the existing capacity remains scattered, understaffed and uncoordinated. Effective prevention of violent conflict and peacebuilding will require capacities for research, training and resource mobilization.

Lack of an Integrated Regional Approach

Even though many of the conflicts in the region have cross-border and regional implications, a coherent regional approach to conflict prevention and peacebuildign is largely lacking. The various Regional Economic Communities (RECs) have commendably shown a willingness to pay attention to issues of conflict management. These efforts however remainn uncoordinated and are in many instances duplicated as each of the RECs with overlapping memberships set up separate conflict handling mechanisms.

Culture of Reaction

Current approaches to conflict are largely reactive, geared towards the management of crises only. Even where there is a stated commitment to early warning and early response, there lacks the political will, means, requisite attitude, capacity and commitment to early preventive action.

Mistrust of CSOs

In many countries of the region, there remains mistrust and suspicion between CSOs and governments. This makes collaboration difficult and blocks the possibility of strategic and synergic sharing of resources, information and expertise not only with the governments in question, but also with the relevant intergovernmental bodies and agencies. Similarly, the proliferation of CSOs and competition for resources and constituencies has hindered collaboration among COSs.

Increased Competition Amongst CSOs

There has been a phenomenal rise in the number of CSOs working directly on issues of conflict and peacebuilding and others working more broadly on development and social justice issues. The relationship between these actors is marked more by competition than by co-operation. Lines of accountability are usually south-north, with CSOs accounting only to funding agencies in the north.

Violence as a means of Accessing Power

The late 80s saw a number of leaders in the region ride to power through military victories. While many of these leaders have lately converted to into democrats by allowing elections, albeit in a controlled manner, the net effect of this method of acceding to power has been a glorification of violence and military power.

Erosion of the Region's Productive Population

The wars that have ranged in the region have had heavy toll on the region's young population. Those that have survived the wars have suffered traumas as child soldiers, sex slaves and victims of violence. In addition, diseases, particularly the HIV pandemic, have claimed the lives of millions of young people, while more millions continue to be infected. The region's productive population has therefore been greatly eroded. This has consequences for the recovery of the region even after the conflicts have been terminated.

Post-Conflict Peacebuilding and Reconstruction

The way post-conflict peacebuilding and reconstruction is understood and handled could be crucial in braking or perpertuating violence in the region. A number of the countries in the region-Burundi, DRC, Somalia and the Sudan are the most visible- are emerging from conflicts of varying durations and intensity. The ending of the current conflicts will certainly expose new challenges. It however offers the opportunity to 'proventively' work for peace in these countries. In the immediate post-accord period, challenges include the obvious need to physically reconstruct state apparatus, including election of new leadership, ensuring security for all, reconstruction of damaged infrastructure and resuscitating the community and national economies. Other challenges include supporting the development of the capacity for sustaining peace of the existing and yet-to-emerge civil society, and communities in those countries. The more daunting-and perhaps less obvious-challenges relate to the human aspects of 'reconstruction': encouraging socio political restructuring, attending to the demobilization, disarmament, rehabilitation and reintegration (DDRR) needs of former fighters respecting agreements, sustaining dialogue and the will to co-exist in spite of the past divisions and mutually afflicted atrocitie, psycho-social accompaniment of traumatized survivors of violence and, ultimately, reconciliation, healing and restoration of community.

Cross-Border Conflicts

The region is beset with conflicts that tend to flow across borders. We note, for example that cattle grazing, rustling and watering conflicts among the pasteralist communities of Eastern Africa tend to be cross-border in nature. These conflicts have had a destabilizing effect on the economy of the pastoral communities. In addition, the conflicts act as a pull factor for the proliferation of illicit weapons in the region, promoting an 'arms race' amongst the communities.

Gainful Engagement of the Youth

The largest portion of the African population is of a growing class young people. Unfortunately, there exists a yawning mismatch between the aspirations and needs of this group of the population, and the opportunities to realize them. In the absence of opportunities for self-fulfillment for this creative and restless generation, the young people become increasingly hopeless and prone to violence and self-destruction. A peaceful and sustainable future for the region will require that these young people be nurtured and aided toward meaningful engagement.

Degrading Poverty and Hopelessness

The relationship between poverty and conflict remains contentious. Suffice it, however, to observe that a 'conflict map' of the world seems to correspond with a 'poverty map.
For example, out of 26 high intensity conflicts in the world in 2000, only 4 were in the shared between Latin America, the Far East and South East Asia, Middle East, Asia and Africa. Of these 22, half (11) were in Africa. 9 out of these 11 countries are ranked 'low' in the UNDP Human Development Index. People with little life expectation and little to lose are more likely to engage in destructive conflict. Preventing violent conflict, community, national and global levels.

Criminal Conduct During Wars

Many of the conflicts and wars in the region have been marked by extreme human rights violations and criminality. Torture, abductions, mutilations, enslavement, etc, have been a dominant feature of the conflicts. In particular, sexual violence has increasingly been used as a weapon of war, leaving a sad trail of shattered lives and trauma.

Economic and Political Mismanagement

There is no doubt that the region, and especially its leadership, bears responsibility for many of the problems. Mismanagement of political processes since independence have resulted in various groups feeling discenchanted and resorting to armed resistance and rebellion. Similarly, economic mismanagement has led to excruciating poverty in a region, ironically, endowed with abundant and invaluable resources. Corrupt leadership has found common cause with unscrupulous external interests in the extraction and expropriation of resources.

CSOs an Access to the UN System

There lacks systematic channels of communication, sharing and collaboration between CSOs and the UN system. Relationships between the two have tended to be localized, erratic, and marked by mistrust.

Democratization of Decision Making

Decision-making in the region, and in most of Africa, remains mostly the exclusive domain of adult males. Yet, the population of the regions is mostly young, while women outnumber men. There is therefore a case for the democratization of decision- making to involve young people and women. In particular, at this time of major transitions in the region, the creativity of the young generations and the resilience and resourcefulness of women need to be invited into the process of regenerating the region.

Re-defining the 'Negotiation Table'

Peace negotiations have remained the exclusive domain of 'war lords' and other groups that have proved they are able to perpetrate violence. This model of peacemaking would seem to encourage groups to take up arms as a way of seeking recognition and thereafter the spoils of peace. There is a case for re-defining the peace table to include a greater number or representatives of unarmed groups, especially women. This could help to ensure that negotiator do not simply focus on power sharing amongst themselves, but no the deeper causes of the conflicts. It would also broaden the base for peace beyond the 'war lords', thus ensuring its sustainability.

Regional Integration and Citizenship

The benefits of regional integration so far seem to be conceptualized only in terms of economic returns. However, regional integration should be calculated to bear political and peace dividends especially regarding the movement of people, settlement and citizenship. The question of citizenship remains a vexed one in the region and has been at the core of conflict.


We make the following commitments and recommendations:


1. Self-Regulations and Code of Conduct

As occupiers of the moral higher ground in advocating for change and social justice, CSOs need to be beyond reproach in terms of accountability, transparency, legitimacy and representation. We commit ourselves to striving to create an accountable, self regulating and transparent community of CSOs committed to justice. In particular we commit ourselves to:

- Exemplifying the change we seek in the wider society by demonstrating accountable governance, transparency, good leadership, gender inclusion and sensitivity and generally promoting ethical  values within our organizations

- Upholding the highest ethical standards in our work
- Submitting ourselves to peer review and evaluation through regular forums and interactions

2. Promoting Collaboration and Networking Amongst CSOs

We commit ourselves to seeking greater collaboration and sharing amongst ourselves

3. Capacity for Research and Informed Analysis

As CSO actors, we recognize that all too often, there is a tendency amongst us to shun careful research and objective analysis of issues. This is partly because of limited resources in the face of many competing needs, thus making research seem like an unnecessary extravagance. Yet, meaningful engagement with multiple actors requires that we do so from an informed perspective, otherwise we lose credibility. We commit ourselves to constantly improve the capacity for research and analysis in our respective organizations where possible or through linking up with research institutions and academics in the region.

4. Engaging Governments and Intergovernmental Bodies

Many of the key issues and challenges that we have identified in the region will require action by governments and intergovernmental bodies. CSOs can nevertheless play key roles in responding to them. We shall seek to engage governments and intergovernmental bodies on issues such as the control of illicit weapons, support for community advance warning and response infrastructure on resource conflicts, regulation of the extractive industries, prioritization of programmes for reducing poverty etc. In engaging other actors, we realize that it may be more fruitful to enter dialogical processes with them rather than propose and fixed solutions or actions

5. Promoting a Culture of Peace

At the core of many of the challenges and concerns above, is a pervasive culture of violence that has taken root over many years throughout the region. A fundamental transformation is therefore required. We commit ourselves to working with communities, educators and schools, governments and such other partners as are necessary to promote a culture of peace and tolerance in the region.

6. Linking with the Trade Unions Movement

We recognize Trade Unions as effective vehicles for mobilization and action. We therefore purpose to partner and seek trade unions' involvement in conflict prevention, and particularly is such areas as education for peace and a culture of peace.

7. Lobbying Governments, RECS, and the UN for the Implementation of the Recommendations Below

We commit ourselves to spare no effort in lobbying relevant actors to implement the respective recommendations made below


1. A Specialized Regional Intergovernmental Conflict Prevention and Peacebuilding Agency

Noting the lack of a specialized agency that could focus a Regional Approach to peacebuilding and conflict prevention, we recommend that the governments of the region set up a specialized regional intergovernmental agency dedicated to peacemaking, peacebuilding, prevention and management of conflict. In particular, this agency should
- be tasked to coordinate expertise, capacity building,  research, risk assessments, early warning and resource mobilization for peacebuilidng and conflict prevention

- be mandated with promoting dialogue as a means to resolving conflicts and facilitating the shift to a culture of prevention

- be mandated to collaborate with CSOs, academics, researchers, and such other actors as would aid in the execution its mandate

2. A Post-Conflict Reconstruction and Peacebuilding Fund

In order to ensure the sustainability of peace in countries emerging from conflict, we recommend the setting up of a fund for post-conflict reconstruction. Such a fund could be administered through the AU or any of the RECs and access to it pegged to the adherence by all parties to the agreements which they have signed. Further this facility governments should recognize, invite and facilitate the contribution of CSOs in the promotion of citizenship, the strengthening of democratic institutions (including independent media) and a culture of tolerance and respect for human rights and in post-conflict peacebuilding especially is such areas as trauma counseling, reconciliation and healing processes.

3. A Regional Peace Prize

In order to make peace heroic and counter the glorification of violence as a means of accessing power, we recommend that there be established a "Regional Peace Prize" to recognize and valorise institutions, states or individuals who have shown courage in saving lives and promoting peace and mutual understanding

4. Attention to and Management of Resource-based conflicts

As the nature of conflict in the region changes, there is a high likelihood of increased competition and resource-based conflicts among the communities and between countries in the region. If uncontrolled these conflicts could escalate into widespread violence among communities and between states over natural resources such as water and pastures. We also note with concern the coincidence between wars and large scale extraction and plunder of natural resources by external and internal interests. We therefore recommend:

- That governments, in collaboration with CSOs, develop and support community based early warning systems

- That governments institute and enforce codes of ethics for the extractive industries, and uphold the values of accountability and transparency  in the management and use  of natural resources

- That governments urgently pay attention to land and resources policy issues especially in Burundi, DRC, Kenya and Rwanda where these have become sensitive

6. Upholding Human Rights, Rule of Law and Constitutionalism

Violation of people's rights and disregard for the rule of law and constitutionalism, have contributed to the conflicts in the region. While we are encouraged by the ongoing expansion of the democratic space in the region, we recommend that leaders and Governments:

- Submit themselves to the Peer Review Mechanism of the New Partnership for Africa's Development (APRM/NEPAD). In particular exercise peer influence on one another to discourage and check arbitrary and opportunistic amendments to national constitutions for example on presidential terms of office and make this a   benchmark or indicator in the APRM/NEPAD

- Ratify and domesticate all international laws and conventions on human rights

- Compile and publish regular reports on human rights situations in their countries and involve human rights CSOs in the compilation

- Mainstream gender into all national policies, plans and development initiatives

- Support CSOs involvement in civic education and include  civic education in school curricula and non-formal education

- Create and implement participatory legislation  that is conducive to Civil Society activities

- Strengthen institutions that promote democracy and good governance (e.g. independent judiciary, media and electoral commissions)

- Collectively commit to supporting, enforcing and upholding Peace Accords once signed

- Pay special attention to the rights of Pygmies and other marginalized groups in the region

9. Addressing Poverty

Concerned about the extreme and rising levels of poverty in the region and recognizing that poverty and violent conflict are often intrinsically interrelated, the conference recommends that:

- Governments vigorously implement poverty reduction strategies already  in place

- Governments implement pro-poor programmes aimed at bridging the gap between the  rich and the poor

- Governments exercise due diligence and transparency when drawing national budget priorities and when borrowing on behalf of their citizens and open these processes to citizens through parliaments and CSO involvement

- Governments put up a united front when negotiating international instruments such as the World Trade Organization (WTO)

The United Nations

1. Liaison Office for CSO Relations and Collaboration

We recommend that the UN sets up at its headquarters in New York, a CSO Liaison Office. This office should be mandated to oversee and manage relationships, collaboration and information sharing between CSOs and the UN system

2. Support Verification of and Action on Early Warning Information from CSOs

We recommend that the UN provides a 'home' for the early warning information and risk assessments emanating from the region. In particular, we recommend that the UN, through its Field and Regional Offices, offer support for verification of the information and facilitate action.

3. Declaring as a War Crime Rape and Sexual Violence During War

We recommend that UN passes a resolution against and create instruments for punishing the use of rape and defilement as an instrument of war

4. Monitoring and Effective Embargos on Illicit Arms Trade and Transfer

- Ensure the monitoring and operationalizaion of United Nations Protocol on Arms, (UNPoA) at country levels

- Put effective embargos on illicit and irresponsible transfer of arms to both supplying and receiving countries

5. Supporting CSOs Participation in Conflict Prevention

- Facilitate the work of CSOs, national governments and regional governments relating to border and resource-based  conflicts

- Create joining UN, Governments, Inter-Government and CSOs Mechanisms of monitoring the implementation of international instruments related to peace and security

- Develop an ACCOUNTABILITY FRAMEWORK for UN, Inter-Governmental and International Organizations, in their interaction with CSOs on Conflict prevention and peacebuilding

- Avail "Special CSOs Capacity building Funds" enabling CSOs to effectively contribute  to the UN and international community's efforts in conflict prevention and peacebuilding

- Provide Official mechanisms allowing to CSOs access and to inform for a, such as the  UN Security Council, Regional Organizations, on issues of  peace and  conflict

6. Strengthen the Regional Conflict Prevention Initiatives that aim at Long Term Crisis Prevention

- Monitor regional economic frameworks
- Facilitate the sustainability of economic blocks
- Lobby and advocate for favorable trade policies and other practices by bilateral and multiratelal organizations
- Adopt conflict conflict sensitive approaches


On Peace and Security

Small Arms and Light Weapons

COGNISANT of the proliferation of illicit arms and light weapons in the Region, we RECOMMENDED that:

(i) CSOs

· Sensitive the community and government agents on the danger of small arms and light weapons and on the methods being employed to contain the problem

· Actively input ideas to the national focal points on SALW

· Create crosscutting networks within conflict systems
· Pressurize governments to implement regional and national protocols on small arms

· Promote stakeholder meetings to share ways forward on fighting against SALW

· Research and advocate on demand, flows and control of SALW

(ii) National Governments

· Provide adequate human security  to the people

· Urgently implement and operationalize the various declarations,  treaties and protocols e.g. the Nairobi Declaration (ND) and the Nairobi Protocol on Small Arms and Light Weapons and respect CSOs involvement in line with the ND provisions

· Governments put in place  mechanisms for effective  border controls to end illicit trafficking of arms and light weapons

· Partner with CSOs to control the circulation of these weapons in the communities

(iii) Regional  Governments

· Advocate and lobby for effective embargos against illicit and irresponsible transfer of small arms and light weapons on both the supplying and receiving countries

· Create and  enforce working linkages between the regional and national institutions

· Research on various aspects of the problem of SALW

· Harmonize all actives related to SALW

(iv) International Organizations particularly UN

· Ensure the monitoring and operationalization of United Nations Protocol on Arms, (UNPoA) at country levels

· Put effective embargos on illicit and irresponsible transfer of arms to both supplying and receiving countries

Cross-border conflicts

CONCERNED about the increase in cross-border conflicts in the region we RECOMMENDED that:

i) CSOs

· Act as providers and networks for early warning indicators

· Research and advocate on illegal exploitation of natural resource
· Advocate  and participate in the formulation of relevant conflict prevention policies

· Sensitive communities on the need for good neighbourliness and the value for peace

· Educate communities on alternative sources of livelihood

(ii) National Governments

· Ensure equitable and transparent distribution of resources

· Recognize pastoralism as a viable way of life, provide for the rights of pastoralists to move freely across the borders for pasture and water

· Enforce environmental and social impact assessments that are conflict sensitive before exploitation of natural resources

· Develop and enforce policies that address the concerns of communities on aspects of natural resources

· Institute early warning and response mechanisms

· Enhance economic integration through formalization and legislation of cross-border trade

· Respect international agreements and international law

· Apply the existing AU and UN mechanisms for peaceful resolution of conflicts

· Develop a regional vision for peace by signing non-aggression pacts and establish diplomatic relations with neighbouring countries and activate bilateral and regional co-operations

· Sensitive communities on positive values of tolerance and peaceful co-existence

· Involve CSOs in prevention, mediation and resolution of conflict  mechanisms

(iii) Regional Organizations

· Monitor the implementation of regional instruments for conflict early warning and response

· Work for an equitable and fair water resource allocation, use and management

· Promote strong regional networks

· Support capacity building for CSOs and government structures to deal with various types of border and resources conflicts

· AU establishes and encourage border dispute resolution mechanisms and institutions through arbitration rather than conflict

· Enforce corporate and social responsibility to be upheld by mining, oil and fishing companies and other extractive industries

(v) International Organizations particularly the UN

· Facilitate  work of CSOs, national governments and regional governments relating to border and resource-based conflicts

· Create mechanisms to monitor the implementation of international instruments

· Create clear mechanisms for interacting with CSOs

· Monitor the peace process currently in progress in the region

On Democracy and Good Governance

Human Rights Violations

ACKNOWLEDGING the emerging political will to improve on the respect for human rights, we RECOMMEND that:

(i) CSOs

· Advocate for the repeal of oppressive legislation

· Carry out civic education to government officials and communities on human rights

· Advocate for the development of policy frameworks around issues of human rights

· Monitor human rights issues and violations

· Compile status reports on human rights violations

· Organize national and regional for to share ideas on issues of democracy and good governance

· Lobby for gender mainstreaming at all levels

(ii) National Governments

· Promote respect for Human Rights

· Deliberately formulate policies that address human rights issues and also domestic human rights instruments (national, regional, international)

· Provide  resources to support human rights activities, by itself and other actors

· Compile status reports on human rights violations

· Implement gender balancing in the governance of the state

· Put in place policies of good governance by adapting mechanisms of transparency in the management of revenues generated from the extractive industries

· Support CSOs involved in civic education efforts

(iii) Regional Organizations
· Monitor human rights violations and provide status reports of all actors

· Mobilize resources for CSOs

· Monitor implementation of ratified instruments and adopt recommendations made by CSOs

· Create space  for CSOs within their own structures

(iv) International Organizations particularly the UN

· Implement recommendations from CSOs

· Develop framework for accountability for the UN and for the national governments

· Facilitate the work of CSOs through capacity building, funding etc

· Establish more effective methods of information sharing with CSOs governments etc

· Provide resources to support human rights activities by National Governments and other actors

Rule of Law and Constitutionalism

GIVEN the progressively widening democratic space in the region, we RECOMMEND that

(i) CSOs
· Sensitise the communities on the rule of law and constitutionalism

· Advocate for the rule of law and constitutionalism

· Act as a model of transparency and accountability through mechanisms such as peer reviews

(ii) National Government
· Create and implement participatory legislation that is conducive to Civil Society activities

· Strengthen institutions that promote democracy and good governance (e.g. Independent judiciary and electoral commission

· Uphold the rule of law and avoid arbitary and opportunistic  amendments to the constitution

· Ensure that national resources are not diverted for military expenditure

· Develop a culture of transparency and accountability

(iii) International Organizations

· Facilitate the work of regional organizations towards upholding good governance and democracy

· Create punitive measures to check against governments that abuse democracy and good governance

· Provide access to CSOs to inform for a such as the UN Security Council, Regional Organizations on issues of peace and conflict

· Acknowledge and capacitate the regional and sub-regional governance actors

· WTO and G8 to focus on poverty reduction as a core millennium development goal (MDG) through debt relief, fair trade and pro-poor policies

On Economic Development and Regional Integration

Environmental degradation and desertification
NOTING the impacts of environmental degradation and desertification in the region GPPAC RECOMMENDED that:

(i) CSOs
· Conduct research and advocacy awareness on environmental degradation issues at regional levels

(ii) National Governments
· Design, implement and enforce community-based  environmental protection groups and programmes and provide livelihood alternatives
· Elaborate national afforestation and reforestation programmes

(iii) International Organizations particularly the UN
· Support AU/IGAD to develop disasters and environmental management councils

Poverty Reduction and Regional Integration

CONCERNED about the extreme levels of poverty in the region, the conference RECOMMENDS that:

(i) CSOs
· Enhance their capacity to effectively participate in discourses on poverty reduction strategies
· Sensitise communities regarding poverty reduction strategy papers and monitor  implementation
· Make deliberate efforts  to access, familiarize themselves and help in the implementation of the content of the Cotonou Agreement
· Assist communities to organize in order to address issues and causes of poverty

(ii) National Governments
· Implement the Cotonou Agreement

· Share the contents of the Cotonou agreements with CSOs and communities

· Ensure equitable distribution of resources

· Ensure the provision of quality services to the people

· Put in place effective poverty reduction policies

· Adapt school and academic curricula to social needs

· Vigorously implement poverty reduction strategies already in place

· Collaborate with CSOs to develop proactive approaches to enhance preparedness for natural and human calamities in the region

· Develop favourable trade policies to enhance economic and regional integration

(iii) Regional Organizations
· Regional integration process reflect the wishes of the people by creating space for the participating of CSOs

· Expose themselves to be known and accessed by the ordinary people

(iv) International Organizations/UN

· Monitor regional economic frameworks

· Facilitate the sustainability of economic blocks

· Lobby and advocate  for favourable trade policies and other practices by bilateral and multilateral organizations

· Adopt conflict sensistive approaches

On Humanitarian and Social Affairs

Refugees and Internally Displaced Persons (IDPs)

GIVEN the swelling number of refugees and IDPs in the region, we RECOMMEND that:

(i) CSOs
· Sensitise communities living with  refugees and IDPs

· Provide psycho-social support services to refugees before and after repatriation

· Partner with refugees in their social activities

· Advocate for the implementation of international instruments that protect the rights of refugees and IDPs

(ii) National Governments
· Ratify and implement the international instruments on the protection of refugees and IDPs

· Establish counseling centres for  trauma and stigmatised victims
· Collaborate with CSOs in monitoring DDRRR by organizing income generating activities and employment for ex-combatants

· Involve CSOS to conscientize the local communities to co-exist peacefully with refugees and IDPs

(iii) Regional Organizations
· Ensure that member states ratify and implement international and regional instrument

· Develop a regional policy for refugees and IDPs

(iv) International Organizations
· Develop rapid response units to humanitarian crisis

· Develop monitoring instruments that support the participation of women in humanitarian issues


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