soc.religion.quaker Answers to Frequently Asked Questions
From: Marc Mengel <[email protected]>
Subject: soc.religion.quaker Answers to Frequently Asked Questions
Supersedes: <[email protected]>
Date: 4 Jun 2001 11:35:44 -0500
Expires: 18 Jul 2001 16:35:43 GMT
Message-ID: <[email protected]>
Reply-To: Marc Mengel <[email protected]>
X-Trace: info1.fnal.gov 991672542 28668 184.108.40.206 (4 Jun 2001 16:35:42 GMT)
X-Complaints-To: [email protected]
NNTP-Posting-Date: 4 Jun 2001 16:35:42 GMT
Summary: Assorted answers to questions frequently asked about
the Religious Society of Friends (a.k.a. Quakers) in
Last-update: Mon Jun 4 11:31:33 CDT 2001
In response to various requests in soc.religion.quaker
I have compiled the following FAQ answers posting. The
history in particular is rather sketchy. This is an
evolving document, and corrections are welcomed.
This posting is now being automatically posted monthly,
to soc.religion.quaker, soc.answers, and news.answers on
USENET news, and is in Internet Digest FAQ format. This
also causes it to automatically appear in various places
and others too numerous to list.
To get this posting by e-mail, send the following message
|To: [email protected] |
|send pub/usenet-by-group/news.answers/Quaker-faq |
[Note that those are *all* dashes "-" not underscores "_"]
1.3 Plymouth Bretheren
1.4 Oatmeal, Motor Oil, etc.
2.2 American Friends
2.3 "Programmed" and "Unprogrammed" Meetings
2.4 Worldwide Friends
3 Meetings for Worship
3.1 Traditional/Unprogrammed/Silent Meetings
3.2 Programmed Meetings
3.3 Children at Meeting for Worship
4 Meetings for Business
4.1 Monthly Meetings
4.3 Quarterly/Regional Meetings
4.4 Yearly Meetings
5 Beliefs of Friends
5.6 The Death Penalty, the Prison System, etc.
5.7 Rituals, sacraments, etc.
6 Terms, Acronyms etc.
7 Speech mannerisms
7.1 Thee and Thou (archaic)
7.2 I have a Concern...
7.3 Days of the Week
7.4 Speaking Truth to Power
8 Where can I find...
8.1 a local Quaker meeting
8.2 Quaker publications
8.3 Quaker email, lists, etc.
Subject: (1) Names
Subject: (1.1) Quakers
The term "Quaker" refers to a member ofthe Religious
Society of Friends, which is the proper name of the sect.
There are two reputed origins of the term, the first
refers to people "quaking" or trembling when feeling
moved by the Holy Spirit to speak in Meetings for
Worship. The other according to Elfrida Vipont Brown, is:
George Fox was arrested in Derby in October 1650 and
charged with blasphemy. The magistrates who tried him
were Gervase Bennett and Colonel Nathaniel Barton.
George Fox was questioned intermittently over an eight
hour period, during which at one point George Fox told
the magistrates "Tremble at the word of the Lord". It
was Justice Bennett who coined the name "Quakers" for
the followers of George Fox.
Subject: (1.2) Shakers
The "Quakers" are occasionally confused with the "Shakers";
the Shakers were to some extent a "spin-off" of the Quakers, a
group started by a Manchester, England woman, Ann Lee, who was
born Quaker. She formed a "celibate order" which started communities
throughout the United States. The Shakers are quite interesting
in their own right, adding speaking in tongues and free-form
dancing to the end of a Quaker-style silent meeting. There are
fewer than 10 Shakers left today in the last remaining Shaker
community in Maine, but several of their communities are preserved
Subject: (1.3) Plymouth Brethren
The Plymouth Brethren are not an offshoot of Quakerism and
not a branch of the (German) Brethren church, to the best
I have been informed.
Subject: (1.4) Oatmeal, Motor Oil, etc.
Since the city of Philadelphia and the state of Pennsylvania in
the United States were started by Quakers, many businesses and
towns originating in that area mention Quakers in their names.
In fact these names are particularly common in places like
Quakertown, PA., where the names are actually derived from the
name of the town.
This leads many to the incorrect conclusion that members of the
Religious Society of Friends still are in the habit of wearing
the late 1600's period clothing of the person pictured on the
Quaker Oats(tm) box; this perhaps contributes to the common American
confusion between Quakers and the Amish (who really *do* wear
clothing styles standardized in the 1600's).
Subject: (2) History
Subject: (2.1) Origins
The Religious Society of Friends was started in England around
1650, by many people, the most famous being George Fox. They
in fact intended to start a movement to unify the splintered
Christian churches, rather than to start a separate sect.
Many radical groups were formed in England about this time as a
result of the turmoil, economic injustice, and starvation caused
by the English Revolution and Civil War, and the repeated changes
between Catholicism and Anglicism in England; however most of these
groups disappeared soon after the restoration of the monarchy.
Subject: (2.2) American Friends
Friends were active in New England almost from the beginning
of the Quaker movement, as early as 1654. The Puritans of
Massachusetts, found Quaker ideas unacceptable and exiled Friends
on pain of death. Between 1659 and 1661 one woman and three men
were hanged for returning after such banishment. George Fox spent
over a year in America in 1672. The Quaker population increased
greatly after 1682 when William Penn (who was a Friend) set
about the foundation of Pennsylvania and started the city of
Philadelphia. Friends in general showed an enlightened attitude
to Native Americans, and were also active in the movement
against the slave trade. Later, they helped escaped slaves and
worked for the abolition of slavery, due in part to the work and
ministry of John Woolman (See "Bibliography").
Subject: (2.3) "Programmed", "Unprogrammed", "Evangelical", etc. Meetings,
During the Revival movement in the later 1800's many Friends Meetings
were influenced by Revival preachers. Many of these later hired
preachers and now hold more "conventional" services, with a
preacher, choir, etc. These meetings often call themselves
"Quaker Churches" or "Friend's Churches" rather than "Quaker
Meetings" or "Friends Meetings." Some such branches of
Quakerism refer to themselves as "Evangelical Friends", and
some have gone so far as to hold baptisms and communion, which
many consider an extreme departure from early Quakerism.
There are considered to have been quite a few "schisms" in
Quakerism over the years; the overall history is far too
complicated to describe here.
Subject: (2.4) Worldwide Friends
Many of the Friends elsewhere in the world (besides Britain,
Europe, and America) are more of the "Programmed" meeting
variety. There are large numbers of Friends in various
countries around the world, especially Kenya.
Subject: (3) Meetings for Worship
Subject: (3.1) Traditional/Unprogrammed/Silent Meetings
Silent Meetings for Worship are quite a bit different from most
organized religious services. Basically those attending the meeting
sit silently, trying to listen to the (Holy) Spirit , until someone
is moved by the Spirit to speak. The person so moved generally
stands, says what they have to say, and sits down. Meetings like
this generally run for about an hour, and it is not out of the
ordinary for a meeting to be silent the whole hour.
It is customary to wait a few minutes between speakers to allow
time for consideration of what they have said.
It is considered bad form to "debate" a topic or otherwise
argue a point at Meeting for Worship. More subtle forms of
disagreement, such as telling a related story and how it made
you feel bad, etc. are occasionally employed.
Subject: (3.2) Programmed Meetings
A Quaker Church service is very similar in format to most
Methodist or Baptist services, if a little more mellow.
However, while it is uncommon for members of the congregation
to rise to speak, this is not unheard of, and there are often
periods of silence.
Subject: (3.3) Children at Meeting for Worship
Many visitors to meeting, especially those to unprogrammed or
silent meetings, worry a lot about their children and whether
the children are being quiet enough. They should relax :-).
While it would be appropriate to take your child out of meeting
if the child is screaming or being noisy for long periods, the
occasional noises of small children are generally welcomed.
Some paper and crayons, or a book to read for older children is
often helpful, too.
Most children, especially those of visitors, have a tough time
sitting silently for a full hour. Fortunately most Meetings have
some sort of "First Day School" or "Sunday school" for children.
If you see an adult rising after the start of Meeting and all the
children filing out, they're probably headed for the First Day
Friends are generally quite tolerant of babies and their
noises. It should be considered normal at most unprogrammed
meetings to breast feed babies during meeting.
Subject: (4) Meetings for Business
"Quakers are peculiar, and our organizational arrangements
are too. We do not fit easily into any worldly model of
governance, not even simple democracy."
-- Jim Nichols
Groups of Friends who conduct business as a group are generally
named by how often they meet, and the period between meetings is
generally proportional to the size of the group. (i.e. a group
that meets monthly is a "Monthly Meeting," a group that meets
quarterly is a "Quarterly Meeting," etc.)
Meetings for business (or more properly Meetings for Worship
with a Concern for Business) are held in the manner of a silent
meeting for worship, although there is a Clerk who attempts to
find and record the collectively acquired insight of the Meeting.
All decisions are made by finding the "Sense of the Meeting,"
which is a statement that feels right to everyone in the meeting
at that time. These are generally recorded in the minutes of the
meeting, after being approved.
The Quaker ftp site at clarknet.net has an excellent writeup
on this (See ftp://ftp.clark.net/pub/quaker/business.txt).
Subject: (4.1) Monthly Meetings
Local meetings that hold Meetings for Worship generally hold
meetings for business once a month, and are called "Monthly
Meetings." The Monthly Meeting usually deals with membership,
marriages, paying rent, etc for the meeting facilities and/or
real estate, etc. Monthly meetings sometimes have one or more
"Preparative Meetings", which do business with the monthly
meeting, but meet elsewhere.
Subject: (4.2) Committees
Since most Unprogrammed Friends' meetings don't have a paid
staff of any kind most activities are performed by various
Committees of the membership. Most larger meetings have at
least 10 committees of varying description to maintain the
building, make or organize food, watch the finances, send
out a newsletter, etc.
Committees often recommend items to the Monthly meeting for
action, and are generally required to meet (at least)
Subject: (4.3) Quarterly/Regional Meetings
Larger regional groups of Friends are usually groups of Monthly
Meetings, which meet quarterly, and are often referred to as
Quarterly Meetings or General Meetings. Representatives from
the various Monthly Meetings generally attend such meetings.
Quarterly meetings are often places to discuss issues in
preparation for Yearly Meetings.
Subject: (4.4) Yearly/General Meetings
Even larger groups of Friends are also usually groups of Monthly
Meetings representing several regions, and are referred to as
Yearly or General Meetings. Representatives from the various
Monthly Meetings generally attend such meetings.
Some meetings are members of more than one Yearly Meeting.
There is no overall central organization which claims all
Friends as members, although several organizations (e.g.
Friends World Committee on Consultation) do provide services
Subject: (5) Beliefs of Friends
Friends' beliefs are a little hard to quantify, since Friends
do not believe in having a fixed Creed or Dogma, but rather
in seeking for the leadings of God within ourselves. However,
some generalizations are possible, which are gone over below.
It is interesting to note that many of these positions have
evolved over time, and while they now seem like fairly
straightforward extensions of basic Quaker belief, they
involved much discussion and soul-searching in the past.
Some issues are still evolving, and you will find that current
issues like same-gender relationships, abortion, etc. are topics
on which it is very difficult to achieve unity. At present, I
suspect you can find Friends Meetings with nearly any viewpoint
in the spectrum of possibilities on these issues, and that any
official position is very carefully worded.
Subject: (5.1) Christianity
The Religious Society of Friends is a Christian organization,
in the sense that it is originally based on the teachings of
Jesus in the New Testament. You will in general find some
disagreement among Friends about whether there was a Virgin
Birth, whether various miracles were supernatural occurances
or religious embellishments, whether Jesus was The Son of God,
or just one of God's children etc. You will in general find
agreement that those differences are not important :-).
We *can* all agree that certain things "feel Right," that there
is a part of us that knows what right and wrong are, and that
that part of us is the "Inner Light", or in some sense God.
Many Friends are or have been involved in the Universalist
movement, and people occasionally refer to the _Tao Te Ching_,
the _Koran_, etc. at Meetings as well as various translations
of the _Bible_. (and sometimes _Winnie The Pooh_... :-))
Subject: (5.2) Authority
Friends generally have held that people are people; no one is
more "holy" than anyone else, (except *maybe* Christ,
(See "Christianity")) and that everyone has equal access to the
part of God in all of us. Thus Friends have traditionally
refused to use honorifics like "Your Honor," "Your Eminence,"
The only authority a Meeting has is that its members all agree that
its actions are in keeping with that of God of each of its members.
This is of course the Highest Form of authority to a Friend.
These beliefs about authority have a lot to do with Friends'
beliefs about Marriage, War, etc. (below) and the reason
Friends do not have "priests" that perform blessings,
Friends have also traditionally refused to use terms of royalty,
or of office, like "Your Highness" or "Your Honor". As
Barclay writes (from Dean Freiday's edition, on p. 391):
2. It is not lawful for Christians to kneel before or
prostrate themselves to any man, or to bow the body
or uncover the head.
The previous point also makes the same point as to "word
honor" in court, specifically the use of terms including
On p. 402 there is a more extensive discussion of Kneeling,
Bowing, and Removing the Hat, with some Biblical references.
A footnote quotes George Fox's Journal, as follows:
"When the Lord sent me forth into the world, he forbade me
to put off my hat to any, high or low...neither might I
bow or scrape with my leg to any one." G. Fox, Journal,
Bi-Centenary Edition, London, Headley, 1902, v. 1, p. 38.
Finally, p. 404 remarks,
"Many of us have been badly beaten and buffeted about, and
we have even been imprisoned for several months for no
other reason except that we would not uncover our heads
or bow our bodies to satisfy the proud and unreasonable
whims of egotistical men. Certainly the innocent practice
of standing still and erect without taking off our hats
any more than our shoes does not show as much rudeness as
the beatings and knocking about we have had because of
Subject: (5.3) Marriage
Officially, two Friends marry each other under the care of
the meeting, but no person "marries" them, God does. Most
meetings reserve the right to refuse to take a marriage under
their care if they feel the couple is not "clear" about their
intention to marry. Generally all present at the ceremony
sign the wedding certificate.
In the USA there have been a *few* meetings which have performed
same-gender marriages; and in one or two states for a while some
of them were even legal. This is a topic of much discussion in
many meetings, and is not something you can assume any given meeting
considers okay. Also to my knowledge the states whose marriage
laws had "Quaker loopholes" allowing Meetings to perform same
gender marriages have closed them. On the other hand, several
states are now considering allowing same-gender marriages...
Subject: (5.4) War
Friends have generally refused to fight in wars, in particular
refused the draft, since the mid to late 1600's. As the
"George Fox Song" says:
"If we give you a rifle
will you fight for the Lord?
But you can't kill the Devil
with a gun or a sword."
Friends groups like the Friends Committee on National
Legislation (FCNL) lobby heavily against military involvement
and military spending along with their other priorities.
Friends are also concerned about finding causes of war in our
daily lives -- do you own something that someone else would
kill to have?
Friends organizations (like the Friends Ambulance Unit in
both World Wars) have attempted to reduce the suffering of
wars, and Quaker House near the United Nations is active in
various diplomatic efforts, allowing "off the record"
discussions between parties who don't officially recognize
one another, etc.
Subject: (5.5) Oaths
Friends traditionally refuse to take oaths of any kind, including
oaths of fealty, pledges of allegiance, etc. (Read the book of
Matthew if you wonder why :-))
Subject: (5.6) The Death Penalty, the Prison System, etc.
"Judge not, lest ye be judged," "Let that person among you
who is without sin cast the first stone," ...
Need I say more? Okay, while early Friends (as in early
Pennsylvania law) had a death penalty for some crimes,
most modern Friends organizations are very active in anti-
death-penalty and prison reform/abolition groups, as much
for pragmatic reasons as for moral ones.
Subject: (5.7) Rituals, sacraments, etc.
Friends generally conduct very simple weddings and memorial
services and do not outwardly observe baptism or the Lord's
Supper. Friends seek to experience the sacraments in an inward
and continuing manner without symbols. The general feeling is
that rituals tend to become more important than the meaning they
are intended to convey.
Subject: (5.8) Dress
Many people, are under the impression that Quakers have rules
about clothing, hats, bonnets, etc. similar to the standards
among the Amish, the Old Order Mennonites, and certain Orthodox
Jewish sects. One explanation for this confusion is the image
on the Quaker Oats(tm) logo (See (1.4) Oatmeal, Motor Oil...);
another is the traditional refusal of Friends to rise or doff
their hats to figures considered to be in authority.
(See (5.2) Authority)
While most Friends do dress less ostentatiously than the average,
this is more a reflection of the overall Quaker emphasis on the
inner spirit rather than outward appearances, not any sort of
enforced restriction on clothing.
Subject: (6) Terms, Acronyms etc.
American (Canadian,...) Friends Service Committee
-- a national organization which works on projects
and programs reflecting traditional Friends' issues.
Friends who are born to Quaker families and decide
to stay with it are called "birthright" Friends,
those who join later are "convinced"; the term
"converted" is rarely if ever used.
When it is clear to you that something is right.
A group formed to help someone decide if something
is right. Often formed to interview a couple
contemplating marriage for example.
Faith and Practice:
Title of a book published by several Yearly Meetings
which describes "standard" practices for accepting
new members, holding business meetings, etc. as well
as a lot of the philosophy behind them. A good
source of Queries, and good Quakerly form letters.
(See "Bibliography") There are many versions, most notably
the Britain Yearly Meeting and Philadelphia Yearly Meeting
versions. (Britain Yearly Meeting (formerly London Yearly
Meeting) historically had a separate "Church Government"
Friends Committee on National Legislation -- a
Lobbying group that works for legislation reflecting
traditional Friends' issues.
Friends General Conference/Friends United Meeting, are
national organizations of Friends that provides support
services for Monthly and Yearly Meetings and which organize
yearly national gatherings. FGC's membership is predomin-
ately unprogrammed meetings, while FUM's membership is
predominately programmed meetings.
Friends World Committee on Consultation is sort of
like FGC or FUM, but on a worldwide scale.
Friends often speak of the Light Within, which is
a term for that of God in each of us.
A good question to ask yourself, often from some
published source, often a leading question; like
"Do you seek to find that of God in those around
you, especially those you disagree with?"
Sense of the Meeting:
A statement of what the group agrees with or is in
unity with, or more correctly the idea that such a
Folks who can be counted on to say something deep
that really makes you think. Especially someone
good at finding the Sense of a Meeting and expressing
Subject: (7) Speech mannerisms
Subject: (7.1) Thee and Thou (archaic)
Among early Quakers it was traditional to call everyone and
anyone thee and thou, including royalty and church officials,
who were to be referred to in the plural in deference to their
official Holier than Thou position. This practice continued
for some time after English speakers started calling *everyone*
"you" rather than "thou."
Only a few (usually older) Friends use thee and thou anymore.
Subject: (7.2) I have a Concern...
Is the traditional method of bringing up an issue to a Meeting
for business. A much stronger statement than it sounds like,
since one unsettled concern about something will stop it from
being done. Usage: "I have a concern that replacing this
mailbox will hurt the baby birds nesting in the current
Subject: (7.3) Days of the Week
Early Friends made a big deal out of removing names of
Mythology figures (Greek, Roman, and Norse Gods) and such from
their speech. Thus the days of the week are referred to as
"First Day" through "Seventh Day" instead of Sunday through
Saturday, and "First Month" through "Twelfth Month" instead of
January through December. This notation is common in writings
like _The Journal of John Woolman_ and other classic Friends
Modern Friends are often not so picky, but Minutes of business
meetings, etc. often still refer to the days numerically, and
it is invariably called "First Day School" not "Sunday School"
at Quaker meetings in the US.
This can lead to some tricky phrasing when talking about the
second Sunday of May, which is of course the second First Day
of Fifth Month...
Subject: (7.4) Speaking Truth to Power
Refers to the general concept of the child asking the Emperor
"why aren't you wearing any clothes?" that is, that the truth
often helps those in power stop deluding themselves.
Subject: (7.5) Holding in the Light
Thinking of someone or something while worshipping, in effect
praying for them silently.
Subject: (8) Where can I find...
Subject: (8.1) a local Quaker meeting
One of the best places to look is in your local telephone
directory; look for:
Localtown Fellowship of Friends
Localtown Friends Meeting/Church
Friends Fellowship of Localtown
Friends Meeting/Church of Localtown
Friends, Religious Society of
Quaker Meeting of Localtown
Localtown Quaker Meeting
Religious Society of Friends
Society of Friends
(with local town names) in your local white pages, or in
the yellow pages under "Churches".
If you're really stuck, try contacting:
Peggy Morscheck, Director
Quaker Information Center
1501 Cherry Street
Philadelphia, PA 19102
1216 Arch Street, Ste. 2A
Philadelphia, PA 19107
Email: [email protected]
They probably have a meeting in your area on their
mailing list. They can also get you free introductory
issues of Friends Journal.
or in the UK, try:
Quaker Home Service Committee
London NW1 2BJ
(+44 171 387 3601)
Or drop a note to
Friends World Committee
1506 Race Street
Philadelphia PA 19102 USA
and ask them for a contact at your nearest Yearly
Meeting, who can probably point you to a nearby
Subject: (8.2) Quaker publications
Here are some bookstores that specialize in Quaker publications.
The numbers are mainly listed as dialed from the USA/Canada.
110 Elliott Rd.
Newberg, OR, USA 97132
Friends' Book Shop
Pendle Hill Bookstore
Wallingford PA, USA 19086
Friends United Press
101-A Quaker Hill Dr.
Richmond IN, USA, 47374
Friends General Conference Bookstore
1216 Arch St., 2B,
Philadelphia PA, USA, 19107
LONDON, UK. NW1 2BJ
0171 387 3601 (+44 171 387 3601 international)
[microfilms also avaliable from the library there]
George Fox College Bookstore
414 N. Meridian
Newberg OR, 97132
Subject: (8.3) Electronic publications
Current information on several Quaker mailing lists is available
on the web. (See www.quaker.org)
There is a British list Quaker-B, send mail saying:
subscribe Quaker-B <my-real name>
to [email protected] to subscribe.
Quaker-Spectrum mailing list: One may subscribe by sending the
message "subscribe" to:
Read soc.religion.quaker and/or bit.listserv.quaker-p on USENET news.
Anonymous ftp to ftp.clark.net and look in pub/quaker
(See ftp://ftp.clark.net/pub/quaker), Email submissions to
A World-Wide-Web page is being maintained by Russ Nelson
Subject: (9) Bibliography
/* Additions from Friends on the 'net -- Marc */
* _A Certain Kind of Perfection_ Margery Post Abbott, Pendle Hill Publications
* _The People Called Quakers_, D. Elton Trueblood, Barclay Press
* _Quaker by Convincement_, Geoffrey Hubbard, Quaker Home Service, London
* _The Quaker Reader_, Jessamyn West (Ed.), Pendle Hill Press
* _Why Friends are Friends_, Jack Wilcuts, Barclay Press
* _J. Walter Malone: The Autobiography oF an Evangelical Quaker_,
Lanham, MD. Univesity Press of America, 1993
/* Written 3:44 pm Nov 9, 1992 by [email protected] in igc:gen.quaker */
/* ---------- "BIBLIOGRAPHY OF QUAKER READINGS" ---------- */
A SHORT LIST FOR THE SEEKER
Revised November 1992 by Joel GAzis-SAx
* FRIENDS FOR 300 YEARS, Howard Brinton, Pendle Hill, 1952.
Combines history and interpretation in an excellent single volume
on the essentials of Quakerism.
* GUIDE TO QUAKER PRACTICE, Howard Brinton, Pendle Hill pamphlet
* THE FAITH AND PRACTICE OF QUAKERS, Rufus M. Jones, Doran, N.Y.,
* QUAKER SPIRITUALITY, ed. Douglas Steere, Paulist Press, 1984.
* BARCLAY'S APOLOGY IN MODERN ENGLISH, Dean Friday, editor, 1967.
* THE AMAZING FACT OF QUAKER WORSHIP, George H. Gorman, Swarthmore
Lecture, 1973, Friends Home Service Committee, London.
* BEYOND MAJORITY RULE (VOTELESS DECISIONS IN THE RELIGIOUS
SOCIETY OF FRIENDS), Michael J. Sheeran, S.J., Philadelphia Yearly
Meeting of Religious Society of Friends, 1983.
* UNMASKING THE IDOLS: A JOURNEY AMONG FRIENDS, Douglas Gwyn,
Friends United Press, Richmond, Indiana, 1989.
* WHAT IS QUAKERISM?: A PRIMER, George T. Peck, Pendle Hill
* THE QUAKERS OR OUR NEIGHBORS, THE FRIENDS, William J. Whalen,
Friends General Conference, Philadelphia, 1984.
* FAITH AND PRACTICE: A QUAKER GUIDE TO CHRISTIAN DISCIPLINE,
Pacific Yearly Meeting of the Religious Society of Friends.
* FAITH AND PRACTICE: A BOOK OF CHRISTIAN DISCIPLINE,
Philadelphia Yearly Meeting of the Religious Society of Friends.
* CHRISTIAN FAITH AND PRACTICE IN THE EXPERIENCE OF THE SOCIETY OF
FRIENDS, Britain Yearly Meeting.
* THE BEGINNINGS OF QUAKERISM, William C. Braithwaite, Rowntree
Series of Quaker Histories.
* PORTRAIT IN GREY (A SHORT HISTORY OF THE QUAKERS), John Punshon,
Quaker Home Service, London, 1984.
* THE QUIET REBELS: THE STORY OF THE QUAKERS IN AMERICA, Margaret
Hope Bacon, New Society Publishers, Philadelphia, 1985. includes
an introduction "The Quaker Contribution to Nonviolent Action."
* THE QUAKER PEACE TESTIMONY: 1660 TO 1914, Peter Brock, Sessions
Book Trust, York, 1990.
* THE JOURNAL OF GEORGE FOX.
* THE JOURNAL OF JOHN WOOLMAN.
* APOCALYPSE OF THE WORD, Douglas Gwyn, Friends United Press
(study guide available)
* A TESTAMENT OF DEVOTION, Thomas R. Kelly, Harper and Bros., NY,
* THERE IS A SPIRIT (SONNETS INSPIRED BY JAMES NAYLER), Kenneth
Boulding, Fellowship Publications, 1945.
* FRIENDLY STORY CARAVAN, Anna P. Broomell, Pendle Hill
* A GUIDE FOR FRIENDS ON CONSCIENTIOUS OBJECTION TO WAR, Ben
Richmond, Friends United Meeting 1991
* NEW CALL FOR PEACEMAKERS (STUDY GUIDE), Faith and Life Press,
Newton, Kansas, 1979.
* BIBLICAL PACIFISM: A PEACE CHURCH PERSPECTIVE, Dale W. Brown,
Brethren Press, Elgin, Ill., 1986.
* FIRST AMONG FRIENDS: GEORGE FOX AND THE CREATION OF QUAKERISM, H. Larry Ingle,
Oxford University Press, 1994